Centaurea diffusa LAM.

© Jörg Ochsmann 2005

(Asteraceae, trib. Cardueae, sect. Acrolophus)


Centaurea diffusa LAM. (1785) Encycl. 1: 675.
Typus: "Carduus orientalis caicitrapae folio, flore minimo. tournef. cor. 31", P-LAM (holo-)
Synonyms / Synonyme:
= Acrolophus diffusus (LAM.) Á. LÖVE & D. LÖVE (1961) in Bot. Not. 114: 44.
= Acosta diffusa SOJÁK (1972) in Cas. Nár. Muz., Odd. Prír. 140: 134.
Chromosome no. / Chromosomenzahl (2n): 18, 36 (Georgiadis & Phitos 1976, Kuzmanov et al. 1981, Moore & Frankton 1954, Powell et al. 1974, Taylor & Taylor 1977, Tonjan 1968, Uhrikova & Májovský 1977 u. 1978, Kuzmanov et al. 1979 u. 1981, Van Loon & De Jong 1978, Ochsmann 1999)
Life form / Lebensform: (annual to) biennual, monocarpic
Distribution / Verbreitung:
Common Names / Volksnamen: E. diffuse knapweed, tumble-knapweed, white knapweed; F. centaurée diffuse; G. Sparrige Flockenblume; It. Fiordaliso diffuso; Swed. spretklint
Images / Bilder: Centaurea_diffusa_01_Stamp.jpg (1902 Byte)
  • Hayek (1901: tab. VIII, fig. 7)
  • Prodan (1930: tab. IV, fig. 10 et tab. XXXIII)
  • Prodan & Nyárády (1964: 841, tab. 170, fig. 2)
  • Watson & Renney (1974: 688)
Molecular data / molekulare Daten: ITS 1 (EMBL database): AJ402890; IGS (EMBL database): AJ405093, AJ405124
Herbivores / Schadinsekten: (Cornell Univ., Biological Control): Agapeta zoegana, Cyphocleonus achates, Pterolonche inspersa, Sphenoptera jugoslavica, Urophora affinis
References / Literatur:
  • Callaway, R.M. & Aschehoug, E.T. 2000: Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors: A mechanism for exotic invasion. - Science 290: 521-523.
  • Campobasso, G. Sobhian, R., Knutson, L., Pastorino, A.C. & Dunn, P.H. 1994: Biology of Pterolonche inspersa (Lep.: Pterolonchidae), a biological control agent for Centaurea diffusa and C. maculosa in the United States. - Entomophaga 39(3-4): 377-384.
  • Harris, P. 1980: Effects of Urophora affinis Frfld. and U. quadrifasciata (Meig.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Centaurea diffusa Lam. and C. maculosa Lam. - Z. Angew. Entomol. 90: 190-201.
  • Harris, P. & Cranston, R. 1979: An economic evaluation of control methods for diffuse and spotted knapweed in western Canada. - Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 59: 375-382.
  • Harrod, R.J. & Taylor, R.J. 1995: Reproduction and pollination biology of Centaurea and Acroptilon species, with emphasis on C. diffusa. - Northwest Sci. 69(2): 97-105.
  • Maddox, D.M. 1982: Biological control of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) and spotted knapweed (C. maculosa). - Weed Sci. 30: 76-82.Myers, J.H. & Berube, D.E. 1983: Diffuse knapweed invasion into rangeland in the dry interior of British Columbia. - Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 63: 981-987.
  • Popova, A.Y. 1960: [Centaurea diffusa LAM., a steppe-pasture weed in the Crimea.] - Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 45: 1207-1213. [in Russian]
  • Powell, R.D. 1990: The role of spatial pattern in the population biology of Centaurea diffusa. - J. Ecol. 78(2): 374-388.
  • Powell, R.D. and Myers, J.H. (1988) The effect of Sphenoptera jugoslavica Obenb. (Col., Burprestidae) on its host plant Centaurea diffusa Lam. (Compositae). J. Appl. Ent. 106: 25-45.
  • Schirman, R. 1981: Seed production and spring seedling establishment of diffuse and spotted knapweed. - J. Range Managem. 34(1): 45-47.Sheley, R.L., Jacobs, J.S. & Carpinelli, M.F. 1998: Distribution, Biology, and Management of Diffuse Knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) and Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa). - Weed Technol. 12(2): 353-362.
  • Thompson, D.J. & Stout, D.G. 1990: Duration of the juvenile period in diffusa knapweed (Centaurea diffusa). - Canad. J. Bot. 69: 368-371.
  • Watson, A.K. & Renney, A.J. 1974: The biology of Canadian weeds. 6. Centaurea diffusa and C. maculosa. - Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 54: 687-701.
  • Zimmerman, J.A.C. 1997: Ecology and distribution of Centaurea diffusa LAM., Asteraceae. U.S. Geological Service- Biological Resources Division Colorado Plateau Research Station - Flagstaff, Arizona, Flagstaff, Arizona. [http://www.usgs.nau.edu/swemp/Info_pages/plants/Centaurea_diffusa/diffusa.html]
  • Zwölfer, H. (1976) Investigations on Sphenoptera (Chilostetha) jugoslavica Obenb. (Col., Buprestidae), a possible biocontrol agent of the weed Centaurea diffusa Lam. (Compositae) in Canada. Z. ang. Ent. 80:170-190.
Remarks / Anmerkungen: Die Sippe tritt in Deutschland verwildert auf Bahnanlagen, in Häfen und anderen Ruderalstandorten in der Nähe von Verkehrswegen auf, wo sie stabile Populationen aufbaut. Sie ist offenbar in Ausbreitung begriffen. Wenn die Art zusammen mit C stoebe vorkommt, kann es zu spontaner Bastardierung kommen (vgl. RECHINGER, 1950; SCHABERG, 1965; HERDAM et al., 1993).
(last updated: 29.01.2007)