Centaurea stoebe L.

© Jörg Ochsmann 2006

(Asteraceae, trib. Cardueae, sect. Acrolophus)


Centaurea stoebe L. (1753) Sp. pl.: 914.
Typus: non designatus
Selected Synonyms / ausgewählte Synonyme:
=
Chromosome no. / Chromosomenzahl (2n): 18, 36
Life form / Lebensform: biannual to perennial, monocarpic to polycarpic
Distribution / Verbreitung:
  • Indigenous in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe: A, BG, BY, CH, CZ, D, EST, HR, F, GR, H, I, LT, LV, MD, MK, PL, SK, RO, RUS, SLO, UA, YU (Serbia)
  • subsp. micranthos introduced to parts of Northern, Western and Southern Europe (DK, F, I, S) and North America (CAN, USA)
Common Names / Volksnamen: E. spotted knapweed; F. centaurée macule, centaurée tachetée; G. Rispige Flockenblume knapweed; F. centaurée macule, centaurée tachetée; G. Rispige Flockenblume; Swed. sandklint
Images / Bilder:
References / Literatur:
  • Ochsmann, J. 2000: Morphologische und molekularsystematische Untersuchungen an der Centaurea stoebe L.-Gruppe (Asteraceae-Cardueae) in Europa. - Diss. Bot. 324: 242 pp.
  • Ochsmann, J. 2001: On the taxonomy of spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L.). In: Smith, L. (ed.): Proceedings of the International Knapweed Symposium, March 15-16, 2001. USDA-ARS, Coeur d’Alene, ID.
Note / Anmerkung: 
Due to the different ploidy level subsp. stoebe and subsp. micranthos are genetically isolated. No intermediate forms occur. Aufgrund des unterschiedlichen Ploidiegrades sind die subsp. stoebe und die subsp. micranthos genetisch isoliert. Es existieren keine Übergangsformen.
Identification key / Bestimmungsschlüssel:
1

Ray florets missing, flowers cream-coloured, rarely purple, capitula ca 2-6 mm wide, phyllary appendages always with distinct terminal spine, achenes small, 2-3 mm, pappus 0 (at most rudimentary) ..... C. diffusa 

1

1'

Ray florets present, capitula ca 3,5-11 mm wide ..... 2

1'

2

Flowers whitish or purple (intermediate colours occur), capitula ca 3,5-8 mm wide, phyllary appendages light to dark, very variable, terminal spine 0 to well developed, length of achenes variable, 2,5-3,5 mm, pappus missing or up to 0,6 mm ..... C. ×psammogena 

2

2'

Flowers purple, capitula over 5 mm wide, terminal spine 0 ..... 3 

2'

3

Pappus ca 0,5-1 mm (sometimes 0?), phyllary appendages big, black, with 8-11 cilia per side (endemic in SE Europe) ..... C. stoebe subsp. serbica 

3

3'

Pappus ca 1-2,5 mm, appendages dark brown to black, with 4-10 cilia per side ..... 4 

3'

4

Plants normally single-stemmed, monocarpic, capitula ca 6,5-11 mm wide, phyllary appendages with 6-10 cilia per side, diploid (2n = 18), Europe, absent in North America ..... C. stoebe subsp. stoebe 

4

4'

Plants normally many-stemmed, perennial, polycarpic, capitula ca 5-8 mm wide, phyllary appendages with ca 4-7 cilia per side, bracts often tinged with dark violet, tetraploid (2n = 36), invasive in Europe and North America ..... C. stoebe subsp. micranthos 

4'

(last updated: 29.01.2007)

subsp. stoebe
Selected Synonyms / ausgewählte Synonyme:
Chromosome no. / Chromosomenzahl (2n): 18 (Ochsmann 1999)
Life form / Lebensform: biannual, monocarpic
Distribution / Verbreitung:
  • Central and Eastern Europe
Common Names / Volksnamen: E. spotted knapweed; F. centaurée maculée, centaurée tachetée; G. Rispen-Flockenblume
Images / Bilder:
  • Jávorka & Csapody (1933: 549, Nr. 3936)
  • Prodan (1930: tab. V, fig. 4, tab. XXXV [as / als C. rhenana])
  • Prodan & Nyárády  (1964: 849, tab. 172, fig. 1 [as / als C. rhenana])
  • Schubert & Vent (1988: 554 [as / als C. stoebe and / und C. maculosa])
Molecular data / molekulare Daten: ITS 1 (EMBL database): AF031055; IGS (EMBL database): AF031057, AF031059
Herbivores / Schadinsekten: (Cornell Univ., Biological Control): Agapeta zoegana, Cyphocleonus achates, Urophora affinis
(last updated: 29.01.2007)

subsp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek (1931) Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg., Beih. 30(2): 766.
Typus: Gugler (1907: 169): "C. Baenitz, Herb. europ. sine No. (2 Bg.); diese von Borbás bei Budapest gesammelten Belege sind äußerst typisch". (BP, Isotypus?: M
Basionym: Centaurea maculosa Lam. subsp. micranthos Gugler 1907 Centaur. ungar. Nationalmus.: 167. 
Selected Synonyms / ausgewählte Synonyme:
Chromosome no. / Chromosomenzahl (2n): 36
Life form / Lebensform: perennial, polycarpic
Distribution / Verbreitung:
Common Names / Volksnamen: E. [small-headed] spotted knapweed; F. centaurée maculée, centaurée tachetée; G. Kleinköpfige Rispen-Flockenblume
Images / Bilder:
Molecular data / molekulare Daten: ITS 1 (EMBL database): AJ402901, AJ402902
Herbivores / Schadinsekten: (Cornell Univ., Biological Control): Agapeta zoegana, Cyphocleonus achates, Urophora affinis
Note: According to herbarium studies reports for Centaurea paniculata L. (E. panicled knapweed; F. centaurée paniculée) from N America refer to this taxon.
(last updated: 29.01.2007)

subsp. serbica (Prodan) Ochsmann 2000 Diss. Bot. 324: 72.
Typus: "(…) stammt aus dem H. C. BAENITZ, wurde in Jugoslavien unter dem Namen C. tartarea VEL. gesammelt und von WAGNER als C. affinis FRIV. bestimmt." CLA
[Note / Anmerkung:
presumably it is the following specimen of which duplicates (Isotypes?) are in W, M, LY / vermutlich handelt es sich um den folgenden Beleg, von dem Dubletten in W, M, LY liegen: "Baenitz, Herb. europ. 8163. Fl. Serbica: In m. Basara prope Pirot. VII/1894, JOVANOVIC"]
Basionym: Centaurea affinis Friv. subsp. serbica Prodan 1930 Centaur. Român.: 137.
Synonyms / Synonyme:
Centaurea tartarea Velen.  1886 Abh. Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. VII. Folge 1(8): 25.
       =  C. stoebe L. subsp. tartarea (Velen.) Stoj. & Acht. 1935 Stud. Centaur. Bulgar.: 49.
       =  C. paniculata L. subsp. maculosa (Lam.) Briq. var. tartarea (Velen.) Arènes 1951 Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. N.S., Sér. B. Bot. 1(2): 221.
       =  Acosta tartarea (Velen.) Holub  1974 Preslia 46(3): 227.
       =  C. rhenana Boreau subsp. tartarea (Velen.) Dostál 1976 Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71(3): 200.
       =  C. affinis Friv. subsp. tartarea (Velen.) Georgiadis 1980 Contr. Etud. Phyl. Genre Centaurea: 38.
Chromosome no. / Chromosomenzahl (2n): 18 ([for / für c. affinis subsp. tartarea]: Georgiadis 1983, Andreev 1981)
Life form / Lebensform: biannual to perennial(?), monocarpic
Distribution / Verbreitung:
  • Endemic for Europe (YU (Serbia), BG, GR)
Images / Bilder:
  • Prodan (1930: 136, tab. XXXIII, p.p.)
(last updated: 29.01.2007)